Methods and Concepts in Economic Complexity

by Andrés Gómez-Liévano

Knowhow in societies accumulates as it gets transmitted from group to group, and from generation to generation. However, we lack of a unified quantitative formalism that takes into account the structured process for how this accumulation occurs, and this has precluded the development of a unified view of human development in the past and in the present. Here, we summarize a paradigm to understand and model this process.

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Hybrid Mechanisms for Robust Synchronization and Coordination of Networked Sampled-Data Systems

by Jorge Poveda

We present a novel approach for the design of robust feedback coordination and control mechanisms for networks of asynchronous nonlinear multi-agent systems (MAS). Each agent corresponds to a sampled-data system characterized by a continuous-time plant, a discrete-time controller with logic or integer states, and a sampler/zero-order hold with a local clock. The goal is to robustly stabilize an application-dependent compact set defined a priori for the MAS, taking into account the asynchronous nature of the triggering mechanisms of the agents, and the limited information in the network.

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Phenotypic similarity leads to taxonomic inconsistency: A revision of the lowland's antpittas

by Gustavo Bravo

A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of lowland antpittas in the genera Hylopezus and Myrmothera indicated that Hylopezus, as currently defined, is paraphyletic with respect to Myrmothera and Grallaricula. Specifically, both species now placed in Myrmothera, Hylopezus dives, Hylopezus fulviventris and Hylopezus berlepschi form a strongly supported clade that is sister to a clade comprised by Hylopezus perspicillatus, Hylopezus auricularis, Hylopezus ochroleucus, Hylopezus whittakeri, Hylopezus paraensis, Hylopezus macularius, and Hylopezus dilutus.

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The Quantum Tensor Contraction Handler

by Jhonathan Romero

Classical simulation of quantum computation is necessary for studying the numerical behavior of quantum algorithms, as there does not yet exist a large viable quantum computer on which to perform numerical tests. Tensor network (TN) contraction is an algorithmic method that can efficiently simulate some quantum circuits, often greatly reducing the computational cost over methods that simulate the full Hilbert space. In this study we implement a tensor network contraction program for simulating quantum circuits using multi-core compute nodes. We show simulation results for the Max-Cut problem on 3- through 7-regular graphs using the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA), successfully simulating up to 100 qubits.

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Taking Stock of Programs to Develop Socioemotional Skills : A Systematic Review of Program Evidence

by Marcela Gutierrez Bernal

This book represents a systematic review of the documented impacts of programs aimed at fostering socio-emotional skills in developed and developing countries. It uses a life-cycle approach to organize the findings from rigorous evaluations of more than 80 programs. This includes programs for toddlers and young children before primary school, programs for students enrolled in formal education, and programs targeted at the out-of-school population. The book develops a conceptual framework that helps to identify the program characteristics and participants’ profiles associated with a range of program outcomes. These include health-related, behavioral, academic or cognitive, and economic-related outcomes. The review finds that few of the programs studied focus exclusively on the development of socio-emotional skills. In fact, most efforts to develop socio-emotional skills are embedded within innovative education and training curricula, as well as pedagogical and classroom practices.

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Civil conflict, domestic violence, and poverty as predictors of corporal punishment in Colombia

by Jorge Cuartas

With lingering effects from more than 50 years of war, young children in Colombia are exposed to multiple risk factors such as poverty, civil conflict, and domestic violence. In addition to these environmental stressors, public and legal support for corporal punishment remains high, which is shown by the high prevalence of young children exposed to corporal punishment in Colombia. The purpose of this study is to identify individual, family, and municipality-level predictors of corporal punishment (i.e., hitting with objects and spanking) in Colombia in order to inform prevention and intervention strategies.

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Invisible Walls: Measuring the Impact of Organized Violence on Urban Expansion

by Simón Gaviria Muñoz

In this paper, we examine the relationship between density and organized violence. Security for most of human history has been one of the determinant factors for city development and growth; this remains true today. What is new, and the focus of this paper, is that the prevalence of organized violence increases the density of adjacent areas. Throughout history, those fleeing organized violence have sought refuge in cities or neighboring towns that provided “pockets of safety” or a measure of “relative security.” We first observed this phenomenon in Colombia when we found that after decades of organized conflict between guerilla groups and the Colombian national government, its cities were denser than neighboring cities.

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Cystatin C for Risk Stratification in Patients After an Acute Coronary Syndrome

by Simón Correa

Cystatin C (Cys-C) is a marker of renal function that has shown prognostic value for cardiovascular risk stratification across different patient populations. The incremental value of Cys-C beyond established cardiac and renal biomarkers remains incompletely explored. Methods and Results SOLID - TIMI 52 (Stabilization of Plaques Using Darapladib-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 52; , NCT01000727) randomized patients ≤30 days post-acute coronary syndrome were treated with darapladib or placebo. The association between Cys-C and long-term risk (median follow-up 2.5 years) was assessed in 4965 individuals with adjustments made for clinical variables and other risk markers (eg, estimated glomerular filtration rate, high-sensitivity troponin I, brain-type natriuretic peptide, and fibroblast growth factor-23).

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Empowering the 99%: Technology Upgrades by Small Businesses Can Boost Productivity and Growth in Latin America

by Valentín Sierra

Conventional economic wisdom states that trade liberalization drives unproductive firms out of the market, while resources and market share go to the most productive firms to maximize economic efficiency and consumer utility. From this perspective, government interventions that are designed to actively support small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) – including initiatives to help uncompetitive businesses to stay afloat against natural trade dynamics – have little economic validity. Often the question is posed, if SMEs are to contribute to economic development they should be productive and competitive, correct? The answers given by many international policymakers contradicts this wisdom. These policymakers would rather argue that publicly-funded SME support programs are, in fact, critical to a country’s economic development.

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